Natural gas and LNG
- Gas supply
This term refers to the importation and purchase of the gas required to meet consumer demand
This abbreviation refers to natural gas Exploration and Production, which is a longstanding specialty of ENGIE.
This term covers all the methods used to discover new deposits of hydrocarbons. Where exploration is successful and followed by hydrocarbon extraction, the term Exploration & Production (E&P) is then used.
All the operations involved in penetrating the subsoil using appropriate resources, either for geological surveys, or to extract subterranean fluids, or to inject fluids.
- Conventional gas
Natural gas is found in reservoir rock that is normally porous and permeable. It may be present in its gaseous form or dissolved in crude oil, and can be exploited technically using conventional production resources.
- Combustible gases
Gases or gas mixtures that burn freely in the presence of air or oxygen and are normally used to generate heat.
- Liquefied petroleum gas
These lightweight hydrocarbons are gases under normal temperature and pressure conditions and can be stored in their liquid state either by pressurizing them or reducing their temperature.
- Town gas (manufactured gas)
The type of gas supplied before the advent of natural gas, and sometimes also known as ‘lighting gas’. It was produced in gasworks by distillation from coal gas or other petroleum products. Because it contained carbon monoxide (CO), town gas was toxic. Town gas has now been replaced by natural gas.
The process used to convert liquid or solid products into their gaseous form.
- Natural gas
A methane-rich combustible gas extracted from natural deposits. It may also contain variable quantities of heavier hydrocarbons and water vapor. It may also include sulfurous compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide and other non-hydrocarbon gases, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen or helium.
Did you know?
The ENGIE natural gas supply portfolio is equivalent to 1,296 TWH per year, which is equivalent to 120 million mm3 of gas.
- Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
LNG is a natural gas containing almost 100% methane, which is liquefied by reducing its temperature to -163°C. The liquefaction of natural gas reduces its volume by a factor of 600, making long distance transportation much easier.
Did you know ?
- ENGIE is Europe’s leading importer of LNG, and the third largest in the world. ENGIE transported 16.4 million metric tons of LNG in 2014.
- Vehicle Natural Gas (VNG)
Containing 100% natural gas, VNG is fast becoming a very popular fuel as a result of its eco-friendly credentials (it emits four times less greenhouse gas than heavy fuel oil) and its economy in use. Urban transit systems running on natural gas are quieter than conventional vehicles and have a range of more than 190 miles.
- Gas pipeline
A pipeline used to transport gas under high pressure over long distances. Gas pipelines may be connected to international networks serving one or more regions, and deliver gas to different points within a country.
- Diesel fuel
A blend of liquid hydrocarbons specified on the basis of their characteristics and used as a fuel.
- Rich gas (or wet gas)
Natural gas containing hydrocarbons heavier than methane in quantities that make them commercially extractable and/or enable them to be eliminated to make the gas usable as a fuel or transported via a gas pipeline.
- Active gas
Gas available within an underground gas storage facility.
All porous rocks containing hydrocarbons.
The abbreviation for Liquefied Natural Gas.
- Delivered LNG
Delivered Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) – also known as retail LNG – refers to LNG delivered to LNG fuel distribution depots or off-grid industrial facilities by tanker trucks. Economical, eco-friendly and efficient, LNG is attracting more and more industrial companies with no hook-up to the natural gas network.
- Gaz hub
The central intersection of a transportation network delivering natural gas from multiple sources with the ability to trade volumes of natural gas between the sources and end-user markets.
A chemical compound containing only carbon and hydrogen. It is the main constituent of crude oil and natural gas.
Hydrogen is a non-toxic gas with a high energy content. It can be produced from a large number of primary energy sources, but particularly fossil fuels with CO2 sequestration at source and renewables. Its applications are many and varied. Most importantly, it is the focus for high hopes as a fuel solution for transportation in the post-oil era.
The abbreviation for Natural Gas Liquids.
- Natural gas liquefaction
The conversion of natural gas from its gaseous state to its liquid state for transportation by sea and/or storage.
- Natural Gas Liquids (NGL)
These products are recovered in their liquid state using separators and natural gas treatment installations. Natural gas liquids include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, natural gasoline and condensates. They may also contain small quantities of products other than hydrocarbons.
- Methane (CH4)
A colorless, flammable gas. Its specific gravity is 0.555. It is released naturally by decomposing organic matter. It is the main constituent of natural gas.
- LNG carier
A ship whose tanks are built to transport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cooled to -163°C.
Also referred to as anaerobic digestion, methanation is a process that controls the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. This natural biological process enables the recovery of energy, after which the remaining organic matter has a value as agricultural fertilizer.
- Methanol (CH3OH)
This alcohol is obtained essentially by chemical synthesis following gasification of carbon-containing products, particularly wood. It may be used as a synthetic fuel.
- Carbon monoxide (CO)
This toxic, colorless and odorless gas is released during incomplete combustion.
This invisible, odorless gas constitutes approximately 20% of the air we breathe.
Depending on the type of distribution network serving consumer connections, there are two types of pressure:
- Low Pressure (LP) of 50 mbar or less, which can be used as a direct supply for gas-fueled installations
- Medium Pressure (MP). Medium Pressure A (MPA) of between 50 and 400 mbar is rarely used in practice. Medium Pressure B (MPB) of between 400 mbar and 4 bar requires the use of pressure reducer/regulators before being piped into homes.
- Gas is piped at high pressure through the transportation network. In large-scale interconnectors, the maximum service pressure range is in the region of 60 to 100 bar.
- Combustion products
The gases burned as a result of natural gas combustion. They contain essentially carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O).
- Propane (C3H8)
The name given to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) distributed in cylinders or tanks. Its liquefaction temperature is -42°C under atmospheric pressure.
Soil or subsoil excavation for the purpose of exploiting a deposit.
The process of returning a liquid gas such as Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to its gaseous state.
- Distribution network
Pipeline network used to distribute natural gas (at medium or low pressure) to a defined region or company.
- Transportation network
High-pressure pipeline network used to transport gas to downstream distribution networks or directly connected industrial consumers.
- Reserves (of a deposit)
The volume of oil or gas contained in rock.
- Gas reservoirs
Surface or subsurface facilities used to store combustible gases in gaseous or liquid state.
- Gaz storage
An industrial facility – usually subsurface – used by natural gas suppliers to hold a stock of natural gas.
- Subterranean storage
The use of porous geological formations or cavities occurring naturally or created artificially (saline aquifers) to store liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons.
- LNG terminal
An industrial installation that receives, unloads, stores and re-gasifies Liquefied Natural Gas, and injects natural gas in its gaseous state into the transportation network.
- Gas turbine
An internal combustion engine in which high-temperature, pressurized combustion gases power a turbine, which in turn drives a compressor that increases the pressure of the combustion air. The result is the generation of mechanical or electrical energy.
- Liquefaction plant
These plants usually combine liquefaction units, storage units, transfer and shipping pumping stations and shipping units: piers, loading points and other associated facilities (utilities, etc.).